Thursday, October 15, 2020
Wednesday, July 22, 2020
G protein-coupled receptor 55 also known as GPR55 is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the GPR55 gene.
GPR55 was identified and cloned for the first time in 1999. Later it was identified by an in silico screen as a putative cannabinoid receptor because of a similar amino acid sequence in the binding region. Research groups from Glaxo Smith Kline and Astra Zeneca characterized the receptor extensively because it was hoped to be responsible for the blood pressure lowering properties of cannabinoids. GPR55 is indeed activated by endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids such as plant and synthetic cannabinoids but GPR-55 knockout mice generated by a research group from Glaxo Smith Kline showed no altered blood pressure regulation after administration of the cannabidiol-derivative abnormal cannabidiol.
GPR55 is coupled to the G-protein G13 and activation of the receptor leads to stimulation of rhoA, cdc42 and rac1.
GPR55 is activated by the plant cannabinoids Δ9-THC and the endocannabinoids anandamide, 2-AG and noladin ether in the low nanomolar range. Exocannabinoids such as the synthetic cannabinoid CP-55940 are also able to activate the receptor while the structurally unrelated cannabinoid mimic WIN 55,212-2 fails to activate the receptor. Recent research suggests that lysophosphatidylinositol and its 2-arachidonoyl derivative, 2-arachidonoyl lysophosphatidylinositol (2-ALPI), may be the endogenous ligands for GPR55 and the receptor appears likely to be a possible target for treatment of inflammation and pain as with the other cannabinoid receptors.
This profile as a distinct non-CB1/CB2 receptor which responds to a variety of both endogenous and exogenous cannabinoid ligands has led some groups to suggest GPR55 should be categorised as the CB3 receptor, and this re-classification may follow in time. However this is complicated by the fact that another possible CB3 receptor has been discovered in the hippocampus, although its gene has not yet been cloned, suggesting that there may be at least four cannabinoid receptors which will eventually be characterised. Evidence accumulated during the last few years suggests that GPR55 plays a relevant role in cancer and opens the possibility of considering this orphan receptor as a new therapeutic target and potential biomarker in oncology.[2
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Tuesday, September 3, 2019
Monday, May 20, 2019
This is very important to know, read and pass on.
The pharmaceutical industry is a far more criminal enterprise than you realize.
Consider the following: 90% of the drug supply is generic. 40% of all drugs are manufactured in India. 80% of all active ingredients in our meds are manufactured outside of the U.S. Fraudulent data is being used to certify drugs with the FDA by foreign manufactures.
When U.S. inspectors find discrepancies, the FDA works against its own inspectors, under the Trump administration.
Drugs are manufactured for the U.S. and Europe under a different standard. Countries in Africa and Asia for example, with lax inspection forces are considered ROW or Rest of the World by drug manufacturers.
Glass and metal fragments are being found in these drugs. People are dying in these countries and if you are traveling abroad, you could be exposed to the impurities.
Doctors, investigative reporters and industry experts are demanding congress investigate.
Contact your congressional representatives and demand an investigation of the FDA and the pharmaceutical industry.
FDA agents are being poisoned when they visit overseas plans and their hotel rooms are being bugged, yet, the FDA takes the side of the overseas industries instead of THEIR OWN AGENTS!
See the story of Peter Baker an investigator who was poisoned and threatened for finding impurities in drugs manufactured in India.
FDA inspections are being announced before they take place to give manufacturers time to destroy records and manufacture others.
Our drugs are constantly being changed (I have noticed this at the VA). To protect ourselves, we must Google FDA warning labels whenever we notice a change in our drugs.
PLEASE WATCH THIS VIDEO BELOW AND SHARE THIS POSTING!
Tuesday, January 22, 2019
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Friday, November 16, 2018
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Tuesday, October 9, 2018
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Monday, December 12, 2016